Embedded – Protocols


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Embedded Protocol GetStart
Embedded Protocol All Post
Embedded Protocol COAP
Embedded Protocol CAN
Embedded Protocol FTP
Embedded Protocol I2C
Embedded Protocol MQTT
Embedded Protocol SPI
Embedded Protocol UART
Embedded Protocol Zigbee
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What is a communication protocol?

In telecommunications, a communications protocol is a system of digital rules for data exchange within or between computers. Communicating systems use well-defined formats (protocol) for exchanging messages.

  • Serial Communication Interfaces (SCI): RS-232, RS-422, RS-485 etc.
    • Synchronous Serial Communication Interface
      •  I2C, SPI, SSC and ESSI (Enhanced Synchronous Serial Interface)
  • Network
    • Ethernet,
    • LonWorks, etc.
  •  Timers
    • PLL(s),
    • Capture/Compare and Time Processing Units
  •  Discrete IO: aka General Purpose Input/Output (GPIO)
  • Fieldbuses:
    • CAN-Bus,
    • LIN-Bus,
    • PROFIBUS, etc.
  • Analog to Digital/Digital to Analog (ADC/DAC)
  • Debugging :
    • JTAG,
    • ISP,
    • ICSP,
    • BDM Port,
    • BITP and DP9 ports

Type of Communications

  1. Simplex Communication : One way communication. Receiver can’t resend data back to transmitter.
  2. Duplex Communication : Two or both way communication.
    1. Half Duplex : Two or both way communication. But Can’t exchange the data same time. Ex : Like Walkie Talkie.
    2. Full Duplex : Two or both way communication and can exchange data same time. Ex : Like Phone Call.

Methods of communication

  1. Synchronous Communication : Based on clock pulse
  2. Asynchronous Communication :No clock pulse, based upon the register configuration (Internal clock pulse)

 


Wireless Protocols Standards

  • 802.1        –    Inter connection(bridging)
  • 802.2        –    Logical link control
  • 802.3        –    Ethernet(CSMA/CD)LAN
  • 802.4        –    Token bus LAN
  • 802.5        –    Token ring LAN
  • 802.6        –    Metropolitan Area Networks (DQDB)
  • 802.7        –    Broad band TAG
  • 802.8        –    Fiber optic TAG
  • 802.9        –    Isochronous LAN
  • 802.10        –    Security
  • 802.11        –    Wireless LAN/Wi Fi
  • 802.12        –    Demand priority
  • 802.14        –    Cable modem
  • 802.15        –    Wireless personal aread network(PAN)
  • 802.15.1    –    Bluetooth
  • 802.15.3    –    Light rato wireless PAN
  • 802.15.4    –    ZigBee
  • 802.15.6    –    Body area network
  • 802.16        –    Broad band wireless(Wi max)
  • 802.17        –    Resilient Packet Ring
  • 802.18        –    Radio regulatory WG(Mobile broad band wireless access)
  • 802.19        –    Coexistence TAG
  • 802.20        –    Mobile broadband wireless
  • 802.21        –    Media independent handoff
  • 802.22        –    Wireless regional area network

Wireless Protocol

  • 6LowPAN
    • Standard: RFC6282
    • Frequency: (adapted and used over a variety of other networking media including Bluetooth Smart or (2.4GHz) or ZigBee or low-power RF (sub-1GHz)
    • Range: N/A
    • Data Rates: N/A
  •  Bluetooth
    • Standard: Bluetooth 4.2 core specification
    • Frequency: 2.4GHz (ISM)
    • Range: 50-150m (Smart/BLE)
    • Data Rates: 1Mbps (Smart/BLE)
  • GSM (Cellular)
    • Standard: GSM/GPRS/EDGE (2G), UMTS/HSPA (3G), LTE (4G)
    • Frequencies: 900/1800/1900/2100MHz
    • Range: 35km max for GSM; 200km max for HSPA
    • Data Rates (typical download): 35-170kps (GPRS), 120-384kbps (EDGE), 384Kbps-2Mbps (UMTS),
    • 600kbps-10Mbps (HSPA), 3-10Mbps (LTE)
  • GPS
  • LoRaWAN
    • Standard: LoRaWAN
    • Frequency: Various
    • Range: 2-5km (urban environment), 15km (suburban environment)
    • Data Rates: 0.3-50 kbps.
  • NFC
    • Standard: ISO/IEC 18000-3
    • Frequency: 13.56MHz (ISM)
    • Range: 10cm
    • Data Rates: 100–420kbps
  • Neul
    • Standard: Neul
    • Frequency: 900MHz (ISM), 458MHz (UK), 470-790MHz (White Space)
    • Range: 10km
    • Data Rates: Few bps up to 100kbps
  • Sigfox
    • Standard: Sigfox
    • Frequency: 900MHz
    • Range: 30-50km (rural environments), 3-10km (urban environments)
    • Data Rates: 10-1000bps
  • Thread
    • Standard: Thread, based on IEEE802.15.4 and 6LowPAN
    • Frequency: 2.4GHz (ISM)
    • Range: N/A
    • Data Rates: N/A
  • WiFi
    • Standard: Based on 802.11n (most common usage in homes today)
    • Frequencies: 2.4GHz and 5GHz bands
    • Range: Approximately 50m
    • Data Rates: 600 Mbps maximum, but 150-200Mbps is more typical, depending on channel frequency used and number of antennas (latest 802.11-ac standard should offer 500Mbps to 1Gbps)
  • ZigBee
    • Standard: ZigBee 3.0 based on IEEE802.15.4
    • Frequency: 2.4GHz
    • Range: 10-100m
    • Data Rates: 250kbps
  • Z-Wave
    • Standard: RFC6282
    • Frequency: (adapted and used over a variety of other networking media including Bluetooth Smart
    • (2.4GHz) or ZigBee or low-power RF (sub-1GHz)
    • Range: N/A
    • Data Rates: N/A

Networking Protocol

  • TCP/IP
  • HTTP
  • MQTT
  • CoAP

Wired Communication Protocols

  • Synchronous – Clock signal synchronous
    • I2C
    • SPI
  • Asynchronous – No Clock signal synchronous
    •  UART
  • BSPI
  • CAN
  • EMI
  • ENET
  • 2CUAR
  • I2S
  • Infrared
  • HDLC
  • One-Wire(1 wire)
  • RJ-45
  • RS-232
  • RS-485
  • SSI
  • USB

 


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