Embedded – Protocols

Here discussed some basics of communication, type of communications,categories of communications, what are the wired and wireless communications are available and list of various communication protocols.


Communication Protocol

What is a communication protocol?

In telecommunications, a communications protocol is a system of digital rules for data exchange within or between computers. Communicating systems use well-defined formats (protocol) for exchanging messages. Serial Communication Interfaces (SCI) are RS-232, RS-422, RS-485 etc.

Communication methods

  • Synchronous Serial Communication Interface
    •  I2C, SPI, SSC and ESSI (Enhanced Synchronous Serial Interface)
  • ASynchronous Serial Communication Interface
    • UART

Communication Categories

  •  Network
    • Ethernet,
    • LonWorks, etc.
  •  Timers
    • PLL(s),
    • Capture/Compare and Time Processing Units
  •  Discrete IO: aka General Purpose Input/Output (GPIO)
  • Fieldbuses:
    • CAN-Bus,
    • LIN-Bus,
    • PROFIBUS, etc.
  • Analog to Digital/Digital to Analog (ADC/DAC)
  • Debugging :
    • JTAG,
    • ISP,
    • ICSP,
    • BDM Port,
    • BITP and DP9 ports

Type of Communications

  1. Simplex Communication : One way communication. Receiver can’t resend data back to transmitter.
  2. Duplex Communication : Two or both way communication.
    1. Half Duplex : Two or both way communication. But Can’t exchange the data same time. Ex : Like Walkie Talkie.
    2. Full Duplex : Two or both way communication and can exchange data same time. Ex : Like Phone Call.

Methods of communication

  1. Synchronous Communication : Based on clock pulse
  2. J Communication :No clock pulse, based upon the register configuration (Internal clock pulse)

 


Wireless Protocols Standards

  • 802.1        –    Inter connection(bridging)
  • 802.2        –    Logical link control
  • 802.3        –    Ethernet(CSMA/CD)LAN
  • 802.4        –    Token bus LAN
  • 802.5        –    Token ring LAN
  • 802.6        –    Metropolitan Area Networks (DQDB)
  • 802.7        –    Broad band TAG
  • 802.8        –    Fiber optic TAG
  • 802.9        –    Isochronous LAN
  • 802.10        –    Security
  • 802.11        –    Wireless LAN/Wi Fi
  • 802.12        –    Demand priority
  • 802.14        –    Cable modem
  • 802.15        –    Wireless personal aread network(PAN)
  • 802.15.1    –    Bluetooth
  • 802.15.3    –    Light rato wireless PAN
  • 802.15.4    –    ZigBee
  • 802.15.6    –    Body area network
  • 802.16        –    Broad band wireless(Wi max)
  • 802.17        –    Resilient Packet Ring
  • 802.18        –    Radio regulatory WG(Mobile broad band wireless access)
  • 802.19        –    Coexistence TAG
  • 802.20        –    Mobile broadband wireless
  • 802.21        –    Media independent handoff
  • 802.22        –    Wireless regional area network

Wireless Protocol

  • 6LowPAN
    • Standard: RFC6282
    • Frequency: (adapted and used over a variety of other networking media including Bluetooth Smart or (2.4GHz) or ZigBee or low-power RF (sub-1GHz)
    • Range: N/A
    • Data Rates: N/A
  •  Bluetooth
    • Standard: Bluetooth 4.2 core specification
    • Frequency: 2.4GHz (ISM)
    • Range: 50-150m (Smart/BLE)
    • Data Rates: 1Mbps (Smart/BLE)
  • GSM (Cellular)
    • Standard: GSM/GPRS/EDGE (2G), UMTS/HSPA (3G), LTE (4G)
    • Frequencies: 900/1800/1900/2100MHz
    • Range: 35km max for GSM; 200km max for HSPA
    • Data Rates (typical download): 35-170kps (GPRS), 120-384kbps (EDGE), 384Kbps-2Mbps (UMTS),
    • 600kbps-10Mbps (HSPA), 3-10Mbps (LTE)
  • GPS
  • LoRaWAN
    • Standard: LoRaWAN
    • Frequency: Various
    • Range: 2-5km (urban environment), 15km (suburban environment)
    • Data Rates: 0.3-50 kbps.
  • NFC
    • Standard: ISO/IEC 18000-3
    • Frequency: 13.56MHz (ISM)
    • Range: 10cm
    • Data Rates: 100–420kbps
  • Neul
    • Standard: Neul
    • Frequency: 900MHz (ISM), 458MHz (UK), 470-790MHz (White Space)
    • Range: 10km
    • Data Rates: Few bps up to 100kbps
  • Sigfox
    • Standard: Sigfox
    • Frequency: 900MHz
    • Range: 30-50km (rural environments), 3-10km (urban environments)
    • Data Rates: 10-1000bps
  • Thread
    • Standard: Thread, based on IEEE802.15.4 and 6LowPAN
    • Frequency: 2.4GHz (ISM)
    • Range: N/A
    • Data Rates: N/A
  • WiFi
    • Standard: Based on 802.11n (most common usage in homes today)
    • Frequencies: 2.4GHz and 5GHz bands
    • Range: Approximately 50m
    • Data Rates: 600 Mbps maximum, but 150-200Mbps is more typical, depending on channel frequency used and number of antennas (latest 802.11-ac standard should offer 500Mbps to 1Gbps)
  • ZigBee
    • Standard: ZigBee 3.0 based on IEEE802.15.4
    • Frequency: 2.4GHz
    • Range: 10-100m
    • Data Rates: 250kbps
  • Z-Wave
    • Standard: RFC6282
    • Frequency: (adapted and used over a variety of other networking media including Bluetooth Smart
    • (2.4GHz) or ZigBee or low-power RF (sub-1GHz)
    • Range: N/A
    • Data Rates: N/A

Networking Protocol

  • TCP/IP
  • HTTP
  • MQTT
  • CoAP

Wired Communication Protocols

  • Synchronous – Clock signal synchronous
    • I2C
    • SPI
  • Asynchronous – No Clock signal synchronous
    •  UART
  • BSPI
  • CAN
  • EMI
  • ENET
  • 2CUAR
  • I2S
  • Infrared
  • HDLC
  • One-Wire(1 wire)
  • RJ-45
  • RS-232
  • RS-485
  • SSI
  • USB

 


Communication Interview Questions

Q : Which wired communication is faster?

  • SPI.

Q : Which wired communication is slower?

  • I2C

Q : Which wireless communication is faster?

  • 5GHz

Q : Which wireless communication is slower?

Q : List out wired communication protocols? (I2C, SPI, UART, USB)

Q : List out wireless communication protocols?

Q : List out synchronous communication protocols?

Q : List out asynchronous communication protocols?

Q : List out half duplex communication protocols?

Q : List out full duplex communication protocols?

Q : What’s the difference between I²C and SPI?

Q : What is the abbreviation of SD card? (Secured Digital card)


All Topics

Embedded Protocol GetStart
Embedded Protocol All Post
Embedded Protocol Bluetooth
Embedded Protocol COAP
Embedded Protocol CAN
Embedded Protocol FTP
Embedded Protocol HTTP
Embedded Protocol I2C
Embedded Protocol MQTT
Embedded Protocol One Wire (OW)
Embedded Protocol SPI
Embedded Protocol UART
Embedded Protocol WiFi
Embedded Protocol Zigbee
Sitemap

 


 

if you have any queries call us +918300026060 or WhatsApp Dismiss

0

Your Cart

%d bloggers like this: