Electronics Circuits – Multivibrator


  • Astable multi-vibrator is a simple two state (S1,S2) small electronics device.
  • Its contains two amplifying transistor and cross coupled by resistors or capacitors.
  • During the world was 1, invented the first multivibrator circuit, that is astable multivibrator oscillator, by Henri Abraham (Below Image) and Eugene Bloch during World War I.
Henri Abraham
  • Why called multivibrator
    • its output waveform was rich in harmonics, So its called multi vibrator.


Electronic Devices – Capacitor


A capacitor consists of two conducting plates separated by an insulating medium. The capacitor can store electric charges, in the form of voltage in electric field. The capacitor blocks direct current. The capacitor opposes any sudden change of voltage applied to it. Capacitor only allows the Alternating current. Capacitor makes the time delay

C=Ԑ o Ԑr A / d farad A=area of each plate in m2,

  • d=distance between the plates in meter, Ԑr =relative dielectric constant(permittivity).
  • Ԑ o=dielectric constant(permittivity)of free space,


Electronic Devices – Resistor

Resistor is a passive two terminal electronic components. It function is to limit or reduce(resist) the flow of current or divide the voltage in a circuit. The unit of the resister is ohm(Ω). The resistance r of any material is proportional to its length and inversely proportional to its area of cross section A.


ρ=specific resistance or resistivity of the material.


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