Category Archives: Embedded

8051 Interface – Servo

A stepper motor is one of the most commonly used motor for precise angular movement. The advantage of using a stepper motor is that the angular position of the motor can be controlled without any feedback mechanism. The stepper motors are widely used in industrial and commercial applications. They are also commonly used as in drive systems such as robots, washing machines etc.

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Stepper motors can be unipolar or bipolar and here we are using unipolar stepper motor. The unipolar stepper motor consists of six wires out of which four are connected to coil of the motor and two are common wires. Each common wire is connected to a voltage source and remaining wires are connected to the microcontroller.


8051 Interface – Keypad



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Keypad is a widely used input device with lot of applications such as telephone, computer, ATM, electronic lock etc. A keypad is used to take input from the user for further processing. Here a 4 by 3 matrix keypad consisting of switches arranged in rows and columns is interfaced to the microcontroller. A 16 by 2 LCD is also interfaced for displaying the output. The interfacing concept of keypad is very simple. Every number of keypad is assigned two unique parameters that are row and column (R, C). Hence every time a key is pressed the number is identifying by detecting the row and column numbers of keypad.


Mongoose-OS – Get Start

Mongoose-OS IDE’s

  • Web Browser based
  • Visual basic extensions

mos tool

What is mos tool ?

  • We need IDE for our project development.
  • mos tool like a web browser based IDE.
  • we can use the mos tool to firmware upload & update, Build the firmware from c source, debug purpose and so on.


Embedded Sensor – Smoke

A smoke sensor is a device that senses smoke, typically as an indicator of fire. Commercial and residential security devices issue a signal to a fire alarm control panel as part of a fire alarm system , while household detectors, known as smoke alarms, generally issue a local audible or visual alarm from the detector itself. The Analog Smoke/LPG/CO  G as Sensor (MQ2) module utilizes an MQ  -2 as the sensitive component and has a protection resistor and an adjustable resistor on board. The MQ-2 gas sensor is sensitive to LPG, i-butane, propane, methane, alcohol,Hydrogen and smoke. It could be used in gas leakage detecting equipments in family and industry. The resistance of the sensitive component changes as the concentration of the target gas changes.


Embedded Sensor – Proximity

Real Time Usage of Proximity Sensor

On Mobile

           Proximity sensor installed on the front of an iPhone 5 next to the earpiece automatically turning off the touchscreen when the sensor comes within a predefined range of an object (such as a human ear) when using the handset.

See Image :


On Parking Sensor

Ultrasonic parking sensor : Source

Parking sensor on a fender




Type of Proximity

  • Capacitive Proximity Sensors
  • Inductive Proximity Sensors
  • Magnetic Proximity Sensors
  • Optical Proximity Sensor
    • Photoelectric
    • PhotoCell
    • Infrared Proximity Sensor (Passive Thermal)
  • Ultrasonic Proximity Sensor
  • Hall Effect proximity Sensor


Proximity Application

  • Parking sensors, systems mounted on car bumpers that sense distance to nearby cars for parking
  • Ground proximity warning system for aviation safety
  • Vibration measurements of rotating shafts in machinery
  • Top dead centre (TDC)/camshaft sensor in reciprocating engines.
  • Sheet break sensing in paper machine.
  • Anti-aircraft warfare
  • Roller coasters
  • Conveyor systems
  • Beverage and food can making lines
  • Improvised Explosive Devices or IEDs
  • Mobile devices
    • Touch screens that come in close proximity to the face
    • Attenuating radio power in close proximity to the body, in order to reduce radiation exposure
  • Automatic faucets


Other Proximity Sensor

PRD-12-8DP Inductive Proximity Sensor


  • Types NPN
  • Type : PNP
    • Data Sheet : Inductive Proximity Sensor Detection Switch PNP Model: LJ12A3-4-Z/BY
    • Specification :
      • A component widely used in automatic control industry for detecting, controlling, and non-contact switching When proximity switch is close to some target object, it will send out control signal.
      • Model: LJ12A3-4-Z/AY
      • Output Type: PNP NC(Normally Close)
      • Detecting Distance: 4mm±10%
      • Theory: Inductive Sensor
      • Wire Type: 3 Wire Type (Brown, Blue, Black)
      • Switch Appearance Type: Cylinder Type, Aluminum Shell
      • Supply Voltage: DC 6-36V
      • Current: 200A
      • Detect Object: Iron
      • Diameter: 12mm
      • Cable Length: 1M/3.3Ft
      • 1 x Inductive Proximity Sensor Switch
    • Price Approximately :340rs (India)


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